Installing HashiCorp Vault on CREODIAS Magnum

In Kubernetes, a Secret is an object that contains passwords, tokens, keys or any other small pieces of data. Using Secrets ensures that the probability of exposing confidential data while creating, running and editing Pods is much smaller. The main problem is that Secrets are stored unencrypted in etcd so anyone with

  • API access, as well as anyone who

  • can create a Pod or create a Deployment in a namespace

can also retrieve or modify a Secret.

You can apply a number of strategies to improve the security of the cluster or you can install a specialized solution such as HashiCorp Vault. It offers

  • secure storage of all kinds of secrets – passwords, TLS certificates, database credentials, API encryption keys and others,

  • encryption of all of the data,

  • dynamic serving of the credentials,

  • granular access policies for users, applications, and services,

  • logging and auditing of data usage,

  • revoking or deleting any key or secret,

  • setting automated secret rotation – for administrators and users alike.

In this article, we shall install HashiCorp Vault within a Magnum Kubernetes cluster, on CREODIAS cloud.

What We Are Going To Cover

  • Install self-signed TLS certificates with CFSSL

  • Generate certificates to enable encryption of traffic with Vault

  • Install Consul storage backend for High Availability

  • Install Vault

  • Sealing and unsealing the Vault

  • Unseal Vault

  • Run Vault UI

  • Return livenessProbe to production value

  • Troubleshooting


No. 1 Account

You need a CREODIAS hosting account with access to the Horizon interface:

No. 2 Familiarity with kubectl

You should have an appropriate Kubernetes cluster up and running, with kubectl pointing to it How To Access Kubernetes Cluster Post Deployment Using Kubectl On CREODIAS OpenStack Magnum

No. 3 Familiarity with deploying Helm charts

This article will introduce you to Helm charts on Kubernetes:

Deploying Helm Charts on Magnum Kubernetes Clusters on CREODIAS Cloud

Step 1 Install CFSSL

To ensure that Vault communication with the cluster is encrypted, we need to provide TLS certificates.

We will use the self-signed TLS certificates issued by a private Certificate Authority. To generate them we will use CFSSL utilities: cfssl and cfssljson.

cfssl is a CLI utility. cfssljson takes the JSON output from cfssl and writes certificates, keys, and CSR (certificate signing requests).

We need to download the binaries of both tools: cfssl and cfssljson from and make them executable:

curl -L -o cfssl
curl -L -o cfssljson
chmod +x cfssl
chmod +x cfssljson

Then we also need to add them to our path:

sudo mv cfssl cfssljson /usr/local/bin

Step 2 Generate TLS certificates

Before we start, let’s create a dedicated namespace where all Vault-related Kubernetes resources will live:

kubectl create namespace vault

We will need to issue two sets of certificates. The first set will be a root certificate for Certificate Authority. The second will reference the CA certificate and create the actual Vault cert.

To create the key request for CA, we will base it on a JSON file ca-csr.json. Create this file in your favorite editor, and if you want to, substitute the certificate details to your own use case:


  "hosts": [
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  "names": [
        "C": "Poland",
        "L": "Warsaw",
        "O": "MyOrganization"

Then issue the command to generate a self-signed root CA certificate.

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca

You should see output similar to the following:

2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] generating a new CA key and certificate from CSR
2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] generate received request
2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] received CSR
2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] generating key: rsa-2048
2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] encoded CSR
2023/01/02 15:27:36 [INFO] signed certificate with serial number 472447709029717049436439292623827313295747809061

Also, as a result, three entities are generated:

  • the private key,

  • the CSR, and the

  • self-signed certificate (ca.pem, ca.csr, ca-key.pem).

The next step is to create Vault certificates, which reference the private CA. To do so, first create a configuration file ca-config.json, to override the default configuration. This is especially useful for changing certificate validity:


  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "17520h"
    "profiles": {
      "default": {
        "usages": ["signing", "key encipherment", "server auth", "client auth"],
        "expiry": "17520h"

Then generate the Vault keys, referencing this file and the CA keys:

cfssl gencert \
  -ca ./ca.pem \
  -ca-key ./ca-key.pem \
  -config ca-config.json \
  -profile default \
  -hostname="vault,vault.vault.svc.cluster.local,localhost," \
  ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare vault

The result will be the following:

2023/01/02 16:19:52 [INFO] generate received request
2023/01/02 16:19:52 [INFO] received CSR
2023/01/02 16:19:52 [INFO] generating key: rsa-2048
2023/01/02 16:19:52 [INFO] encoded CSR
2023/01/02 16:19:52 [INFO] signed certificate with serial number 709743788174272015258726707100830785425213226283

Also, another three files get created in your working folder: vault.pem, vault.csr, vault-key.pem.

The last step is to store the generated keys as Kubernetes TLS secrets on our cluster:

kubectl -n vault create secret tls tls-ca --cert ./ca.pem --key ./ca-key.pem -n vault
kubectl -n vault create secret tls tls-server --cert ./vault.pem --key ./vault-key.pem -n vault

The naming of those secrets reflects the Vault Helm chart default names.

Step 3 Install Consul Helm chart

The Consul backend will ensure High Availability of our Vault installation. Consul will live in a namespace that we have already created, vault.

Here is an override configuration file for the Consul Helm chart: consul-values.yaml.


  datacenter: vault-kubernetes-guide

  enabled: true

  replicas: 1
  bootstrapExpect: 1
    maxUnavailable: 0

Now install the hashicorp repository of Helm charts and verify that vault is in it:

helm repo add hashicorp
helm search repo hashicorp/vault

As the last step, install Consul chart:

helm install consul hashicorp/consul -f consul-values.yaml -n vault

This is the report about success of the installation:

NAME: consul
LAST DEPLOYED: Thu Feb  9 18:52:58 2023
STATUS: deployed
Thank you for installing HashiCorp Consul!

Your release is named consul.

Shortly, several Consul pods will get deployed in the vault namespace. Run the following command to verify it:

kubectl get pods -n vault

Wait until all of the pods are Running and then proceed with the next step.

Step 4 Install Vault Helm chart

We are now ready to install Vault.

First, let’s provide file vault-values.yaml which will override configuration file for the Vault Helm chart. These overrides ensure turning on encryption, High Availability, setting up larger time for readinessProbe and exposing the UI as LoadBalancer service type:


# Vault Helm Chart Value Overrides
  enabled: true
  tlsDisable: false

  enabled: true
    repository: "hashicorp/vault-k8s"
    tag: "0.14.1"

    memory: 500Mi
    cpu: 500m
    memory: 1000Mi
    cpu: 1000m

  # These Resource Limits are in line with node requirements in the
  # Vault Reference Architecture for a Small Cluster

    repository: "hashicorp/vault"
    tag: "1.9.2"

  # For HA configuration and because we need to manually init the vault,
  # we need to define custom readiness/liveness Probe settings
    enabled: true
    path: "/v1/sys/health?standbyok=true&sealedcode=204&uninitcode=204"
    enabled: true
    path: "/v1/sys/health?standbyok=true"
    initialDelaySeconds: 360

    VAULT_CACERT: /vault/userconfig/tls-ca/tls.crt

  # extraVolumes is a list of extra volumes to mount. These will be exposed
  # to Vault in the path `/vault/userconfig/<name>/`.
  # These reflect the Kubernetes vault and ca secrets created
    - type: secret
      name: tls-server
    - type: secret
      name: tls-ca

    enabled: false

  # Run Vault in "HA" mode.
    enabled: true
    replicas: 3
    config: |
      ui = true

      listener "tcp" {
        tls_disable = 0
        address     = ""
        tls_cert_file = "/vault/userconfig/tls-server/tls.crt"
        tls_key_file = "/vault/userconfig/tls-server/tls.key"
        tls_min_version = "tls12"
      storage "consul" {
        path = "vault"
        address = "consul-consul-server:8500"

# Vault UI
  enabled: true
  serviceType: "LoadBalancer"
  serviceNodePort: null
  externalPort: 8200

Then run the installation:

helm install vault hashicorp/vault -n vault -f vault-values.yaml

As a result, several pods get created:

kubectl get pods -n vault
NAME                                                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
consul-consul-client-655fq                            1/1     Running   0          104s
consul-consul-client-dkngt                            1/1     Running   0          104s
consul-consul-client-nnbnl                            1/1     Running   0          104s
consul-consul-connect-injector-8447d8d97b-8hkj8       1/1     Running   0          104s
consul-consul-server-0                                1/1     Running   0          104s
consul-consul-webhook-cert-manager-7c4ccbdd4c-d89bw   1/1     Running   0          104s
vault-0                                               1/1     Running   0          23s
vault-1                                               1/1     Running   0          23s
vault-2                                               1/1     Running   0          23s
vault-agent-injector-6c7cfc768-kv968                  1/1     Running   0          23s

Sealing and unsealing the Vault

Right after the installation, Vault server starts in a sealed state. It knows where and how to access the physical storage but, by design, it is lacking the key to decrypt any of it. The only operations you can do when Vault is sealed are to

  • unseal Vault and

  • check the status of the seal.

The reverse process, called unsealing, consists of creating the plaintext root key necessary to read the decryption key.

In real life, there would be an administrator who could first generate the so-called key shares or unseal keys, which is a set of exactly five text strings. Then they would disperse these keys to two or more people, so that the secrets would be hard to gather for a potential attacker. And to perform the unsealing, at least three out of those five strings would have to be presented to the Vault, in any order.

In this article, however, you are both the administrator and the user and can set up things your way. First you will

  • generate the keys and have them available in plain sight and then you will

  • enter three out of those five strings back to the system.

You will have a limited but sufficient amount of time to enter the keys; the value livenessProbe in file vault-values.yaml is 360 seconds, which will give you ample time to enter the keys.

At the end of the article we show how to interactively set it to 60 seconds, so that the cluster can check health of the pods more frequently.

Step 5 Unseal Vault

Three nodes in the Kubernetes cluster represent Vault and are named vault-0, vault-1, vault-2. To make the Vault functional, you will have to unseal all three of them.

To start, enter the container in vault-0:

kubectl -n vault exec -it vault-0 -- sh

Then from inside the pod, get the keys:

vault operator init

The result will be the following, you will get the 5 unseal keys and a root token. Save these keys to Notepad, so you have convenient access to them later:

Unseal Key 1: jcJj2ukVBNG5K01PX3UkskPotc+tGAvalG5CqBveS6LN
Unseal Key 2: OBzqfTYL9lmmvuewk85kPxpgc0D/CDVXrY9cdBElA3hJ
Unseal Key 3: M6QysiGixui4SlqB7Jdgv0jaHn8m45V91iabrxRvNo6v
Unseal Key 4: H7T5BHR2isbBSHfu2q4aKG0hvvA13uXlT9799whxmuL+
Unseal Key 5: rtbXv3TqdUeN3luelJa8OOI/CKlILANXxFVkyE/SKv4c

Initial Root Token: s.Pt7xVk5rShSuIJqRPqBFWY5H

Then, from within the pod vault-0, unseal it by typing:

vault operator unseal

You will get prompted for the key, then paste key 1 from your notepad. Repeat this process 3 times in the vault-0 pod, each time providing a different key out of those five you have just generated.

This is what the entire process looks like:


In third attempt, the values change to Initialized to be true and sealed to be false:

Key                    Value
---                    -----
Seal Type              shamir
Initialized            true
Sealed                 false
...                    ...

The pod is unsealed.

Now repeat the same process for vault-1 and vault-2 pods.

To stop using the console in vault-0, press Ctrl-D on keyboard. Then enter vault-1 with command

kubectl -n vault exec -it vault-1 -- sh

and unseal it by entering at least three keys. Then the similar procedure for vault-2. Only when all three pods are unsealed will the Vault become active.

Step 6 Run Vault UI

With our configuration, Vault UI is exposed on port 8200 of a dedicated LoadBalancer that got created.

To check the LoadBalancer, run:

kubectl -n vault get svc

Check the external IP of the LoadBalancer (it could take a couple of minutes when external IP is available):

NAME                             TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP      PORT(S)                                                                            AGE
vault-ui                         LoadBalancer   8200:32091/TCP                                                                     143m

Type the external IP to the browser, specifying HTTPS and port 8200. The site may ask you for the certificate and can complain that there is a risk of proceeding. You should accept all the risks and see that Vault UI is available, similar to the image below. To login, provide the token which you obtained earlier:


You can now start using the Vault.


Return livenessProbe to production value

livenessProbe in Kubernetes is time in which the system checks the health of the nodes. That would normally not be a concern of yours but if you do not unseal the Vault within that amount of time, the unsealing won’t work. Under normal circumstances, the value would be 60 seconds so that in case of any disturbance, the system would react within one minute instead of six. But it is very hard to copy and enter three strings under one minute as would happen if the value of 60 were present in file vault-values.yaml. You would almost inevitably see Kubernetes error 137, meaning that you did not perform the required operations in time.

In file vault-values.yaml the following section defined 360 seconds as the time for activating the livenessProbe:

  enabled: true
  path: "/v1/sys/health?standbyok=true"
  initialDelaySeconds: 360

To return the value of livenessProbe to 60, execute the command:

kubectl edit statefulset vault -n vault

You can now access the equivalent of file vault-values.yaml inside the Kubernetes cluster. The command will automatically enter a Vim-like editor so press the O key on the keyboard in order to be able to change the value with it:


When done, save and leave Vim with the standard :w and :q syntax.


Check the events, which can point out hints of what needs to be improved:

kubectl get events -n vault

If there are errors and you want to delete Vault installation in order to repeat the process from a clean slate, note that MutatingWebhookConfiguration might be left in the default namespace. Delete it prior to trying again:

kubectl get MutatingWebhookConfiguration

kubectl delete MutatingWebhookConfiguration consul-consul-connect-injector
kubectl delete MutatingWebhookConfiguration vault-agent-injector-cfg

What To Do Next

Now you have Vault server as a part of the cluster and you can also use it from the IP address it got installed to.

Another way to improve Kubernetes security is securing applications with HTTPS using ingress:

Deploying HTTPS Services on Magnum Kubernetes in CREODIAS Cloud.